Like Bonds, Clemens never tested positive for or admitted use of PEDs, but he did to to trial on perjury charges related to PEDs. On June 18, 2012, jurors returned with a not-guilty verdict for Clemens after close to 10 hours of deliberation. The verdict capped the 10-week trial and five-year investigation into Clemens. The pitcher was accused of perjury, making false statements and obstructing Congress during his February 2008 testimony.
The extent of performance enhancing drugs in MLB came to light with the Mitchell Report, released Dec. 13, 2007. The 409-page report chronicles former Sen. (D-Me.) George J. Mitchell's 21-month investigation into the use of steroids in baseball. The report names 89 MLB players who are alleged to have used steroids, HGH or other performance-enhancing drugs and led to a February 2008 Congressional hearing on the matter, where several players testified under oath. See which players have tested positive for PEDs, admitted to use, or gone on trial for steroid-related crimes.
Caminiti, a third baseman, was the first star player to admit to using steroids when he revealed in a May 2002 interview with Tom Verducci for Sports Illustrated that he began using steroids in 1996 while he was recovering from a shoulder injury. Caminiti estimated that 50% of players were using performance-enhancing drugs. Caminiti struggled with substance abuse throughout his career, including alcohol and cocaine. He died on Oct. 10, 2004 of a drug overdose.
In his leaked BALCO Grand Jury testimony in December 2003, Estalella, a catcher, admitted to using undetectable BALCO drugs (steroids, including The Clear and The Cream and HGH) provided by Greg Anderson. The fact that he had admitted his use was reported by the San Fransisco Chronicle in December 2004. The details of his testimony were published in the book "Game of Shadows: Barry Bonds, BALCO, and the Steroids Scandal that Rocked Professional Sports" in February 2005.
Jason Giambi and Jeremy Giambi
Jason Giambi, a first baseman, admitted in December 2003 testimony before the Grand Jury to using steroids (The Clear, The Cream, Deca-Durabolin, Injectable Testosterone) and HGH, saying undetectable BALCO drugs and injectable testosterone were provided by Greg Anderson. He also said he used Deca-Durabolin and HGH he bought at a Gold's Gym near Las Vegas. He testified that he used the BALCO drugs in 2002-03, Deca-Durabolin in 2001 and HGH from 2001-03. Giambi said he was drawn to Anderson because of Barry Bonds' success. His brother Jeremy, also a first baseman, admitted at the same hearing to steroid use (The Clear, The Cream, Deca-Durabolin, Injectable Testosterone) and HGH. Jeremy testified that he used BALCO drugs and the injectable testosterone obtained from Anderson. Both brothers' confidential testimony was leaked to the San Fransisco Chronicle and published in a Dec. 2, 2004 article.
Santiago, a catcher, testifed before the BALCO Grand Jury in December 2003 and admitted using steroids (The Clear, The Cream, Winstrol, Injectable Testosterone) and HGH provided by Greg Anderson. His testimony was reported by the San Fransisco Chronicle in December 2004 and in the book "Game of Shadows" in February 2005.
Sheffield, an outfielder, testified before the BALCO Grand Jury in December 2003 that he had used steroids (The Clear, The Cream, Andriol) and some "red beans," which lawyers identified as Andriol. Sheffield said that the drugs were obtained directly from Barry Bonds, noting that Bonds' trainer, Greg Anderson, was never involved. Sheffield's testimony was published in the San Fransisco Chronicle on Dec. 3, 2004.
Canseco — an outfielder and half of the Oakland A's "Bash Brothers" of 1997 (with Mark McGwire) — became a pariah with the release of his tell-all, "Juiced, Wild Times, Rampant 'Roids, Smash Hits, and How Baseball Got Big," in February 2005. He admitted to using steroids (Deca-Durabolin, Winstrol, Equipose, Anavar) and HGH. In the book he described himself as "the chemist" and claimed to have personally injected players including Mark McGwire, Rafael Palmeiro, Juan Gonzalez, Ivan Rodriguez and Jason Giambi. In his second book, "Vindicated: Big Names, Big Liars, and the Battle to Save Baseball," Canseco added Magglio Ordonez to the list of players he had injected with steroids and said he introduced Alex Rodriguez to a trainer/PED supplier.
House, a pitcher who played in the 1970s, admitted to using steroids in a telephone interview with San Fransisco Chronicle reporter, Ron Kroichick; the comments were published in a May 3, 2005, article. House said he used steroids "for a couple of seasons" and estimated that six or seven pitchers on every staff in baseball were experimenting with steroids in the '70s, the earliest account of steroid use in baseball.
Joyner, a first baseman, admitted to steroid use in a 1997 interview with ESPN's Buster Olney. He said he asked Ken Caminiti how he could get steroids and that Caminiti gave him the phone number of a steroid dealer. Joyner also admitted he received steroid pills in the mail via Caminiti. Joyner claims he took just three pills before deciding to stop.
During a House Committee session investigating MLB's effort to eradicate steroid use on Capitol Hill on March 17, 2005, Palmeiro defiantly pointed his finger and stated emphatically: "Let me start by telling you this: I have never used steroids. Period. I don't know how to say it any more clearly than that. Never." On Aug. 1 of that year, the first baseman tested positive for steroids and was suspended for 10 days. He insisted then, and maintains to this day, that he ingested steroids accidentally. ESPN reported that Palmeiro suggested a B12 supplement provided to him by teammate Miguel Tejada was responsible for his positive test, an excuse that sounds about as plausibel as "the dog ate my homework." Despite having Hall of Fame-worthy stats, Palmeiro's chances of election are now nearly nil.
Leyritz, a catcher and infielder, gave an interview to the New York Post in June 2006, in which he admitted using HGH while recovering from surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff between the 2000 and 2001 seasons. He said he didn't try steroids because his family had a history of prostate cancer. On Dec. 28, 2007, he was arrested in Florida on suspicion of drunk driving and vehicular homicide when his car struck another and the driver of the other vehicle was ejected from the car and died at the scene. In November 2010, Leyritz was acquitted of manslaughter, but was convicted on a misdemeanor charge of driving under the influence. He was sentenced to one year's probation and a $500 fine.
Crawford, a pitcher, admitted in a June 2006 article by ESPN's Amy K. Nelson to using steroids (Deca-Durabolin, Winstrol) and HGH during the 2001-2003 season. Crawford claimed steroids "had a hold of the game" and that players were "walking around like zombies."
A March 2007 Sports Illustrated article implicated Rocker, a pitcher, saying he received two prescriptions for Somatropin (a human growth hormone) between April and July 2003 from Applied Pharmacy Services in Mobile, Ala. Rocker admitted using Somatropin he bought over-the-counter but denied receiving drugs or ever having a prescription from Applied Pharmacy.
On June 12, 2006, the pitcher was suspended for 50 games after a failed drug test and he admitted to using PEDs. Also revealed at the same time was information that federal officials had raided Grimsley's home looking for evidence that he was a distributor of human growth hormone (HGH) and other performance-enhancing drugs. Court documents revealed that Grimsley had also failed an MLB drug test in 2003; he subsequently confessed to the use of human growth hormones, amphetamines and steroids. His drug use began in 1998 and substances he took included Deca-Durabolin, amphetamines, human growth hormone and Clenbuterol. Grimsley told investigators that he got amphetamines, anabolic steroids and human growth hormone from someone recommended to him by former Yankees trainer Brian McNamee.
Segui, a designated hitter, admitted to HGH use in a June 2006 interview with ESPN's Jeremy Schaap. Segui also said he was one of the redacted names in an affadavit from pitcher Jason Grimsley — a 20-page document released to the public in June 2006, which detailed alleged illegal drug use, with player names redacted. The LA Times reported in October 2006 that Roger Clemens, Andy Pettitte, Miguel Tejada, Brian Roberts and Jay Gibbons were among the redacted names. Kevin Ryan, the U.S. Attorney in San Francisco, said the report contained "significant inaccuracies." Segui claims his HGH use was legal because his physician deemed him HGH-deficient and prescribed him the drugs and monitored him while he was using it. Segui's admission was televised on June 18, 2006, as part of ESPN's "Outside The Lines."
After the Mitchell Report was released, the Orioles second baseman admitted that he used steroids once in 2003, but said he hasn't used them or any other performance-enhancing drugs since. Roberts later participated in Powered by ME!, an anti-steroid campaign in Maryland public schools founded by Democratic congressman Elijah Cummings.
Byrd, a pitcher, was implicated in a March 2007 San Francisco Chronicle article that said he received 13 prescriptions (some for Somatropin, a human growth hormone) between August 2002 and January 2005, while a member of the Royals and Braves, from the Palm Beach Rejuvenation Center, an anti-aging clinic in Florida. Byrd claimed he had a legitimate growth hormone deficiency and that the HGH was used under "a doctor's care and supervision." Byrd received two prescriptions from a dentist.
Monahan, an outfielder, openly admitted in a December 2007 article by ESPN's Mike Fish to using anabolic steroids (Stanozolol, Deca-Durabolin) during his two stints with the Seattle Mariners in 1998 and 1999. Monahan candidly said he used steroids to stay in the majors, describing a culture with the Mariners where he could get steroids and amphetamines from players' friends or clubhouse employees, and that nearly everyone used amphetamines.
Brian McNamee, the former personal trainer to Pettitte and fellow pitcher Roger Clemens, said in the Mitchell report that Pettitte used HGH in 2002 while with the Yankees. Two days later Pettitte issued a statement through his agent confirming McNamee's account and saying that was the one and only time he used HGH. In a deposition and affidavit to a Congressional committee in early 2008, Pettitte said he injected himself with HGH one day in 2004 while with the Astros, using two syringes obtained from his father. He also revealed that former teammate (and soon to be former friend) Clemens admitted that he also used HGH. Clemens’ response at the time was that Pettitte “misrembered” his statement. On Feb. 18, 2008, Pettitte held a press conference in Tampa, Fla., to discuss his HGH use, again insisting that he only used it one day.
The Yankees third baseman admitted to ESPN's Peter Gammons in February 2009 to using performance enhancing drugs from 2001 to 2003 while playing for the Texas Rangers, but denied knowing what they were. He described a culture where PED use was "prevalent." In a press conference later that month, Rodriguez reiterated that he didn't know what the substance was but said it was known as "Boli," and that his cousin brought it from the Dominican Republic. Just 48 hours prior to A-Rod's admission, Sports Illustrated’s Selena Roberts and David Epstein reported that Rodriguez had tested positive for two anabolic steroids (testosterone and Primobolan) in 2003.
McGwire, a first baseman and the single-season home run record holder, refused "to talk about the past" during the 2005 Congressional hearings on PED use in MLB. When he was hired as the St. Louis Cardinals hitting coach in January 2010, he made his first public comments on the matter, issuing a statement to the Associated Press, followed by a 20-minute phone interview. Later that day McGwire was interviewed by Bob Costas on MLB Network. McGwire said he used steroids "on occasion throughout the '90s" to recover from injuries, but was adamant that they did not improve his performance. He said he first used steroids in 1989 or 1990, and used them on a "consistent basis" after the 1993 season and during his record-breaking season in 1998. He said he used HGH "once or twice." McGwire maintains he only used steroids in "low-dosages" for "health purposes" and believes his stats were not inflated at all by use of PEDs.
The journeyman outfielder, a Barry Bonds teammate from 1998 to 2001, testified during Barry Bonds’ 2011 perjury trial that he failed a drug test in 2003. He said he did not know what was in The Clear and The Cream — the substances he testified were given to him by Bonds’ personal trainer, Greg Anderson.
The outfielder/DH was the highest-profile player suspended under MLB's stringent drug policies, implemented in 2004. He was slapped with a 50-game suspension in May 2009, while with the Dodgers, after testing positive for a banned substance, which turned out to human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a female fertility drug that is taken by steroid users to restore testosterone production to normal levels. At that time, Ramirez blamed the test result on medication prescribed to him by a doctor for a "personal health issue." In April 2011, then with the Rays, Ramirez abruptly retired rather than face a 100-game suspension following another failed test. In December 2011, Ramirez petitioned MLB for reinstatement, which was granted. He must still serve a 50-game suspension. While Ramirez has never acknowledged steroid use, he did say he "regrets his decisions." Most recently, he was released by the Oakland A's without ever playing a major league game with the team.
The San Francisco Giants OF was slapped with a 50-game suspension on Aug. 15, 2012, after testing positive for testosterone. He was non-tendered by the Braves in 2010; that season he hit .255 with 4 homers and 42 RBI in 147 games. At the time of his suspension, Cabrera was hitting .346 with 11 homers and 60 RBI in 113 games for the Giants. His OPS jumped from .671 to .809 to .906 in three seasons. After he was banned, Cabrera, 28, said in a statement, “My positive test was the result of my use of a substance I should not have used.” But when Andrew Baggarly of CSNBayArea.com asked him about rumors of a positive test just a few weeks prior, Cabrera angrily denied it. On Aug. 19, the Daily News reported that Cabrera, through an associate named Juan Nunez, created a fictitious website selling a bogus cream, in an attempt to establish that the outfielder had purchased a topical cream online and inadvertently used it. MLB investigators saw through the ruse.
Former Cy Young Award winner Bartolo Colon of the Oakland Athletics was suspended for 50 games on Aug. 22, 2012, after testing positive for testosterone. The ban came just a week after Giants OF Melky Cabrera was slapped with a 50-game suspension. ''I apologize to the fans, to my teammates and to the Oakland A's,'' Colon said in a statement released by MLBPA. ''I accept responsibility for my actions and I will serve my suspension as required by the joint drug program.''
Closer Eric Gagne Gagne was listed in the Mitchell Report as an HGH user. From 2002-04, Gagne recorded 152 saves for the Dodgers, posting a 1.79 ERA and 13.3 strikeouts per nine innings. In his upcoming autobiography, "Game Over: The Story of Eric Gagne," the now-retired reliever suggests that 80 percent of his teammates on the Dodgers were using performance-enhancing drugs while he was there.
Baseball's home run king never admitted to using PEDs and never tested positive. But in April 2011 Bonds was found guilty of lying to a grand jury during the government's investigation of BALCO, by testifying that he never knowingly took any illegal substances. He was sentenced in December 2011 to two years probation, 30 days of home confinement and 250 hours of community service for an obstruction of justice conviction. The jury at his trial in federal court in San Francisco failed to reach a verdict on three perjury counts; prosecutors decided against pursuing a new trial on those charges. Bonds will not begin serving his 30-day home confinement period or two-year probation until his appeal is settled, a process that will take approximately 18 months. BALCO (The Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative) marketed tetrahydrogestrinone ("The Clear"), a then-undetected, performance-enhancing steroid developed by chemist Patrick Arnold.