A Tahiti player failed a doping test at the Confederations Cup in Brazil and was provisionally suspended for 30 days, FIFA said Wednesday.
FIFA did not identify the player or details of the violation.
The player's sample was taken after Tahiti lost 8-0 to Uruguay in Recife on June 23.
FIFA said it opened disciplinary proceedings and invited the player to seek a full hearing. The player declined to ask for analysis of his back-up sample.
FIFA said the player and the Tahitian Football Association have until Aug. 15 to collect evidence and submit a statement to the governing body.
The case takes some luster off Tahiti's feel-good appearance at the eight-team World Cup warm-up tournament, which Brazil won.
Tahiti lost by a combined score of 24-1 against Nigeria, Spain and Uruguay after qualifying as champion of the Oceania confederation.
It's the third doping case announced this year involving a FIFA match.
FIFA banned Peru midfielder Joel Sanchez for two years in March. He tested positive for the stimulant methylhexaneamine after a World Cup qualifying match in Bolivia last October.
Last week, the Jamaica football federation said one of its players failed a doping test after a qualifier in Honduras in June. The player and the doping violation were not detailed.