The 29-year-old is well down the pecking order at Genoa and they are willing to loan him out to their Serie A rivals.
If Biondini impresses during his spell in Bergamo, the move could be made permanent at the end of the season.
Biondini's arrival is a boost for Atalanta as they look to battle back from being deducted two points this season for their involvement in alleged match-fixing.
A statement from Atalanta read: "Davide Biondini is an Atalanta footballer.
"The midfielder, who arrives in Bergamo on loan with a view to buy, will link up with coach Stefano Colantuono's squad."