Soccer is falling under a cloud of suspicion as never before,
sullied by a multibillion-dollar web of match-fixing that is
corrupting increasingly larger parts of the world’s most popular
Internet betting, emboldened criminal gangs and even the
economic downturn have created conditions that make soccer – or
football, as the sport is called around the world – a lucrative
Known as ”the beautiful game” for its grace, athleticism and
traditions of fair play, soccer is under threat of becoming the
”Football is in a disastrous state,” said Chris Eaton,
director of sport integrity at the International Centre for Sport
Security. ”Fixing of matches for criminal gambling fraud purposes
is absolutely endemic worldwide … arrogantly happening
EDITOR’S NOTE: This story is part of a six-month, multiformat AP
examination of how organized crime is corrupting soccer through
At least 50 nations in 2012 had match-fixing investigations –
almost a quarter of the 209 members of FIFA, soccer’s governing
body – involving hundreds of people.
Europol, the European Union’s police body, announced last week
that it had found 680 ”suspicious” games worldwide since 2008,
including 380 in Europe.
Yet experts interviewed by The Associated Press believe that
figure may be low. Sportradar, a company in London that monitors
global sports betting, estimates that about 300 soccer games a year
in Europe alone could be rigged.
”We do not detect it better,” Eaton said in an interview with
the AP. ”There’s just more to detect.”
Globalization has propelled the fortunes of popular soccer teams
like Manchester United and showered millions in TV revenue on clubs
that get into tournaments like Europe’s Champions League. Criminals
have realized that it can be vastly easier to shift gambling
profits across borders than it is to move drugs or other
”These are real criminals – Italian mafia, Chinese gangs,
Russian mafia,” said Sylvia Schenk of corruption watchdog
Ralf Mutschke, FIFA’s security chief, admits that soccer
officials had underestimated the scope of match-fixing. He told the
AP that ”realistically, there is no way” FIFA can tackle
organized crime by itself, saying it needs more help from national
law enforcement agencies.
”The scale is such that no country can deal with the problem on
its own,” said EU Sport Commissioner Androulla Vassiliou.
Gambling on sports generates hundreds of billions of dollars a
year, and up to 90 percent of that is bet on soccer, Interpol chief
Ronald Noble told the AP. Eaton, the former FIFA expert, has cited
an estimated $500 billion a year.
Match-fixing – where the outcome of a game is determined in
advance – is used by gambling rings to make money off bets they
know they will win. Matches also are rigged to propel a team into a
higher-ranking division where it can earn more revenue.
FIFA has estimated that organized crime takes in as much as $15
billion a year by fixing matches. In Italy alone, a recent rigging
scandal is estimated to have produced $2.6 billion for the Camorra
and the Mafia crime syndicates, Eaton said.
Soccer officials are well aware that repeated match-fixing will
undermine the integrity of their sport, driving away sponsors and
reducing the billion-dollar value of lucrative TV contracts. FIFA
earned $2.4 billion in broadcast sales linked to the 2010 World Cup
in South Africa and already has agreed to $2.3 billion in deals
tied to the 2018 World Cup in Russia.
FIFA President Sepp Blatter has proclaimed ”zero tolerance”
for match-fixing. Computer experts working for FIFA and UEFA – the
European soccer body – monitor more than 31,000 European games and
thousands of international matches every year, trying to sniff out
the betting spikes that can reveal corruption.
So far, however, sports authorities are ”proving to be
particularly helpless in the face of the transnational resources”
available to organized crime, according to a 2012 study on
match-fixing. The report warned that the risk of soccer ”falling
into decay in the face of repeated scandals is genuine and must not
Match-fixing has been around for decades, of course, and is not
limited to soccer. It has also infected sports like cricket,
tennis, horse racing and even volleyball. The U.S. has its own
sordid history of gambling scandals, from baseball’s Black Sox in
the 1919 World Series to a handful of point-shaving schemes in
college basketball over the years, to an NBA referee taking money
from a professional gambler for inside tips on basketball games,
including some that he officiated in 2007.
Still, nothing approaches the scale of the allegations now
hitting soccer because of the sheer number of games played and the
enormous Asian betting interest in European games, according to
David Forrest, an economist at the U.K.’s University of Salford
Business School, one of the co-authors of the 2012 report.
In January alone, FIFA banned 41 players in South Korea from
soccer for life due to match-fixing. That follows 51 worldwide bans
last year – 22 of them for life.
Eaton attributes the surge in match-fixing to an exponential
rise in online gambling – ”at least 500 percent, and likely far
more” – in the last decade.
Criminals have targeted every level of the game: the World Cup,
regional tournaments such as the Champions League, high-powered
divisions like England’s Premier League and Italy’s Serie A,
”friendly” exhibition contests between national teams, all the
way down to semipro games.
Match-fixing has also branched out from traditional hotbeds of
corruption – Asia and the Balkans – to places like Canada, Finland
and Norway, among the least corrupt nations in the world.
And with the rise of online spot betting – wagers made during
the game – criminal gangs can also make money on bets like how many
goals are scored, when they are scored, or who will take a penalty
These live bets can ”be particularly advantageous for
criminals,” according to Forrest’s report, because they increase
the number of wagers placed on the same fixed game.
The vast majority of the world’s wagering originates in Asia,
according to Forrest, but its own bettors shun that continent’s
games because Asian soccer has been so corrupt for years.
In 2011, China’s main TV network refused to broadcast the
country’s soccer games because match-fixing was so widespread. Last
year, two former heads of China’s soccer federation were sentenced
to 10 1/2 years in prison.
As former Balkan warlords and Chinese businessmen have
discovered, owning a club means players don’t need to be paid extra
to fix matches; they can just be ordered to lose.
”There is an increasing worry about gangs taking over football
clubs as a way to further match-fixing … and then they could also
use the club to launder money,” Forrest said.
An American diplomatic cable released by WikiLeaks quoted the
U.S. Embassy in Bulgaria as reporting that ”Bulgarian soccer clubs
are widely believed to be directly or indirectly controlled by
organized crime figures who use their teams as a way to legitimize
themselves, launder money and make a fast buck.”
In Turkey last year, 93 people went on trial for match-fixing –
and only 14 of them were players.
Serbian player Boban Dmitrovic says he saw many times where two
Serbian clubs simply agreed upon the outcome in advance.
”Right before the match, a note was handed to the players. They
had to cooperate because their careers would be jeopardized,”
Dmitrovic told FIFPro, the soccer players’ union.
In the past, the perception was that greedy players were behind
match-fixing. Yet a study of eastern Europe by the FIFPro union
portrayed a region where players often are not paid for months and
are intimidated, blackmailed or beaten up.
Many said they had been approached by match-fixers – an average
of 11.9 percent, with spikes in Greece (30 percent) and Kazakhstan
(34 percent). In Russia – host of the 2018 World Cup – about 10
percent of players had been approached to throw a game.
Zimbabwe’s national team players were threatened at gunpoint in
the dressing room and ordered to lose matches by their own soccer
officials in 2009, the country’s new federation chief, Jonathan
Mashingaidze, said in an interview.
In Italy, a goalkeeper under pressure from organized crime to
fix a game in 2010 resorted to drugging several teammates so they
would play badly. They did – and one even crashed his car after the
match, prompting a police investigation that uncovered the fix.
Former player Mario Cizmek of Croatia says he agreed to fix one
match in 2011 after he and his teammates had not been paid by his
club for more than a year. That led to repeated demands by the
fixer, a well-known former coach who used to drink at the same bar
as Cizmek’s team. It was a classic case of a trusted acquaintance
approaching a player to throw a match – a method that Forrest’s
report says is used often.
”As a sportsman, I know I destroyed everything, but at the time
I was only thinking about my family and setting things right,”
Now broke and divorced, he has been sentenced to 10 months in
jail by a Zagreb court.
Because scoring in soccer is so low, its referees have an
outsized influence on the game.
Tainted referees are believed to be at the heart of one or more
games involving South Africa in 2010, with a FIFA report in
December finding ”compelling evidence” of match-fixing.
In 2011, two matches in the Turkish beach resort of Antalya –
one between Bolivia and Latvia, the other between Bulgaria and
Estonia – appeared suspicious when all seven goals came from
penalty kicks awarded by referees. The German magazine Stern later
reported that $6.9 million was wagered on the Bulgarian game
FIFA banned the six eastern European officials involved in those
games for life.
Officials who govern the sport can’t stop match-fixing by
themselves and need the cooperation of law enforcement bodies and
governments, said Schenk of Transparency International.
She and the players’ union say soccer authorities must also make
sure their own ranks are free of corruption and protect
”There is a strong link between good governance in the bodies
that run sports and the sport organizations’ credibility in the
fight against match-fixing,” Schenk wrote in a commentary.
In 2011, Italian defender Simone Farina turned down a fixer’s
offer of $261,500 to throw a game and reported it to police,
setting off an investigation that led to scores of arrests. Despite
being honored by FIFA, he found himself shunned by many in Italy
who considered him a snitch.
”I said no because my immediate thoughts were of my wife, son
and daughter,” Farina said. ”How could I look them in the eye if
I said yes?”
Cizmek – the Croatian player who said he took $26,100 but handed
back all but $650 to police – says his scars from match-fixing will
last a lifetime.
”This turned my life upside down,” he said.
John Leicester in Paris, Graham Dunbar in Geneva, Gerard Imray
in Johannesburg, Mike Corder in Amsterdam and Menelaos Hadjicostis
in Nicosia, Cyprus, contributed to this report.
Norman-Culp is AP’s Assistant Europe Editor in London. Prior to
that, she covered FIFA for AP in Zurich. Follow her at