With two outs and two on in the sixth inning, manager Brad Ausmus came for the ball and was greeted with an icy stare as Blaine Hardy arrived from the bullpen.
"I wanted to finish the game, but I knew what he was seeing. Obviously I've been off for a while and fatigue was a factor there and we really couldn't let this game slip away from us," said Verlander, whose last turn was skipped because of shoulder soreness.
He was removed after one inning the start before that Aug. 11 at Pittsburgh, when Ausmus said he looked like he was throwing darts to protect the joint. Here, his motion was free and easy, and his changeup was diving.
"He wouldn't be Justin Verlander if he didn't push back when he's being taken out. He does not like to come out of games, and I think that's great," Ausmus said.
Coupled with their 12-4 loss to the Twins in the afternoon, the Tigers dropped to a season-most three games behind first-place Kansas City in the AL Central. They also fell to a game behind Seattle for the second wild-card spot.
In the opener, Twins rookie Kennys Vargas drove in five runs and starter Yohan Pino (2-5) struck out six in five innings.
So after the Tigers gave up a total of 32 runs and 34 hits while throwing a whopping 398 pitches in losing the first two games of the series, they badly needed the old Verlander to come through in this one.
"I'm extremely happy he got a win in his first start back," Ausmus said.
Minnesota rookie Trevor May (0-3) completed five innings for the first time in four career starts, but he didn't hold his 4-2 lead after a two-run double by Trevor Plouffe in the third inning.
Eugenio Suarez's broken-bat, two-run single pushed the Tigers in front 5-4, and Jared Burton was summoned from the bullpen. Castellanos hit a two-out, two-strike, two-run single in the seventh off Burton to add to the lead.
Vargas finished the day with six RBI and has driven in 23 runs in his first 22 major league games, all this month.
The Twins scored seven runs in the opener off Tigers starter Buck Farmer (0-1), who managed only four outs. He gave up six runs in the second, while the Twins batted around for the third time in a span of nine innings.
The Tigers will try to split the series by sending reigning Cy Young Award winner Max Scherzer (14-4, 3.07 ERA) to the mound Sunday afternoon. Kyle Gibson (11-9, 4.13 ERA) pitches for the Twins.