The Kings also recalled forwards Tyler Toffoli and Linden Vey from the minors before their home game against Nashville, and announced defenseman Keaton Ellerby was claimed off waivers by Winnipeg.
Carter has five goals and four assists in 14 games this season, tying Justin Williams for the team lead in goals. The right wing led the Western Conference with 26 goals last season for the seventh 20-goal campaign of his NHL career.
The Kings haven't specified the nature of Carter's injury, but he was wearing a walking boot Friday at practice. Carter apparently was hurt during Los Angeles' 4-3 overtime victory over San Jose on Wednesday night.
Carter's absence is a blow to the defense-minded Kings' already modest offense, which is ranked 18th in the NHL with 2.57 goals per game. His move to injured reserve is retroactive to Oct. 30.
The 21-year-old Toffoli is getting his first call-up of the season after appearing in 10 regular-season games and 12 playoff contests with the Kings last year. Toffoli had two goals and four assists in the postseason when Los Angeles reached the Western Conference finals.
Toffoli leads the Kings' AHL affiliate in Manchester with 12 points this season.
Vey is a former fourth-round pick who has spent the last two seasons in Manchester, collecting 67 points in 74 games last season. He has yet to play in an NHL game.
Ellerby still hadn't played for the Kings this season, failing to crack the Kings' defensive rotation after playing in 35 regular-season games and five playoff games last season. Los Angeles acquired him from Florida for a fifth-round draft pick in February.