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Key findings of the Penn St. investigation

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Key findings and recommendations of the investigation into the Jerry Sandusky sex abuse scandal led by former federal judge and ex-FBI director Louis Freeh.

Findings:

- Penn State officials including coach Joe Paterno and university President Graham Spanier concealed information of Sandusky's activities from authorities and the public to avoid bad publicity.

- Paterno, Spanier, Vice President Gary Schultz and athletic director Tim Curley ''empowered Sandusky to attract potential victims'' by failing to restrict his access to the university despite receiving two reports of illicit sexual contact involving him and children.

- Spanier failed in his duties as president by not informing the board of trustees about the allegations against Sandusky and the subsequent grand jury investigation.

- Once aware of the grand jury investigation, the trustees failed in their duty to the university by not pressing Spanier for details about Sandusky's situation.

- The trustees handled Paterno's firing poorly.

- There was no evidence to indicate that Sandusky's 1999 retirement was related to a 1998 police investigation.

Recommendations:

- Reinforce the commitment of all university officials to protect children and create a stronger sense of accountability and transparency among school leadership.

- Evaluate security and access protocols for all campus buildings and better track university programs involving children.

- Require and provide abuse awareness and reporting training to faculty, coaches and staff.

- Establish a policy for university police to seek assistance in sensitive investigations or ones where a conflict of interest may exist.

- Appoint a university ethics officer and an ethics council.

- Strengthen the university's human resources office.

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